Background The determinants of performance in endurance sports can be categorised as: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) Lactate threshold (the point at which blood lactate increases above baseline levels) Efficiency or economy (the oxygen required to produce a given running speed or cycling power output) In populations with similar performance characteristics (VO2 max¬ and lactate threshold), efficiency is a better predictor of performance(1). Essentially, those who can expand less energy and use less oxygen at higher workloads are likely to perform better. Supplementing with sport nutrition products rich in nitrates can have a direct impact on efficiency and as a result improve performance. What does the research say? Ingested nitrates are reduced to nitrite and nitric oxide on the tongue, in the stomach, within circulation and in the muscle(2). As nitric oxide is important in several processes that may support or enhance exercise performance, it is perhaps this nitrate-to-nitrite-to-nitric oxide journey that is crucial when considering the performance enhancing capacity of nitrate supplementation. Following intake, blood nitrate concentration peaks after 1-2 hours and blood nitrite peaks after 2-3 hours(2). The body stores of nitrate and nitrite may also be increased through dietary intake(2, 3). Short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) nitrate supplementation strategies may enhance performance, with chronic strategies perhaps providing greater benefit(4, 5, 6, 7, 8). In addition, emerging evidence may provide rationale for nitrate ingestion during exercise(9). Using a combination of chronic loading, an acute dose and intra-session intake, plasma nitrate was significantly elevated after 90 minutes and plasma nitrite was significantly elevated after 120 minutes of riding when compared to chronic and acute dosing only(9). This elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite attenuated the rise in oxygen uptake from 30-120 minutes compared to placebo, resulting in a reduced oxygen cost of exercise for those using nitrates during exercise(9). Our Brand New Range The SiS Performance Nitrate range has been formulated to deliver effective doses of dietary nitrates to support loading, pre-exercise and intra-exercise usage occasions. The range of gels, bars, powders and shots use Rhubarb Juice Concentrate and Amaranthus Leaf Extract as unique sources of nitrates, providing a superior taste profile and delivering a higher nitrate dose compared to anything else on the market. Performance Nitrate Loading Powder: 48g carbohydrate and 500mg nitrate per 55g serving. Performance Nitrate Loading Shot: 500mg nitrate per 60ml shot. Performance Nitrate Intra Bar: 30g carbohydrate and 250mg nitrate per 50g bar. Performance Nitrate In Session Gel: 20g carbohydrate and 250mg nitrate per 60ml gel. Take Home Messages Supplementing with nitrates can improve running economy or cycling efficiency, by reducing the oxygen cost of exercise. Chronic loading can further enhance performance compared to just pre-race strategies, taking upwards of 1000mg nitrate per day for 3-7 days prior to a competition. The Performance Nitrate powder, shot and bar can be used as loading products. The Performance Nitrate Intra Bar and In Session Gel can be used during exercise, delivering both carbohydrate and nitrate at this time. How To Use Performance Nitrate References Saunders, P. U., Pyne, D. B., Telford, R. D., & Hawley, J. A. (2004). Factors affecting running economy in trained distance runners. Sports Medicine, 34(7), 465-485. Jones, A. M. (2014). Dietary nitrate supplementation and exercise performance. Sports medicine, 44(1), 35-45. Nyakayiru, J., van Loon, L. C., & Verdijk, L. (2020). Could intramuscular storage of dietary nitrate contribute to its ergogenic effect? A mini-review. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. Lansley, K. E., Winyard, P. G., Bailey, S. J., Vanhatalo, A., Wilkerson, D. P., Blackwell, J. R., Gilchrist, M., Benjamin, N., & Jones, A. M. (2011). Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves cycling time trial performance. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(6), 1125-1131. Jones, A. M., Thompson, C., Wylie, L. J., & Vanhatalo, A. (2018). Dietary nitrate and physical performance. Annual Review of Nutrition, 38, 303-328. Maughan, R. J., Burke, L. M., Dvorak, J., Larson-Meyer, D. E., Peeling, P., Phillips, S. M., … & Meeusen, R. (2018). IOC consensus statement: dietary supplements and the high-performance athlete. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 28(2), 104-125. Larsen, F. J., Schiffer, T. A., Borniquel, S., Sahlin, K., Ekblom, B., Lundberg, J. O., & Weitzberg, E. (2011). Dietary inorganic nitrate improves mitochondrial efficiency in humans. Cell metabolism, 13(2), 149-159. McMahon, N. F., Leveritt, M. D., & Pavey, T. G. (2017). The effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on endurance exercise performance in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 47(4), 735-756. Tan, R., Wylie, L. J., Thompson, C., Blackwell, J. R., Bailey, S. J., Vanhatalo, A., & Jones, A. M. (2018). Beetroot juice ingestion during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise attenuates progressive rise in O2 uptake. Journal of Applied Physiology, 124(5), 1254-1263. Written By Professor James Morton A professor of Exercise Metabolism at Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) and a Registered Sports and Exercise Nutrition Practitioner with the British Dietetic Association’s UK Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr), James is responsible for research and innovation at Science in Sport, overseeing the Performance Solutions Team.